You spend too much time on the couch
The bone disease osteoporosis, which occurs as you lose bone mass and bone quality, affects 10 million Americans, 80 percent of whom are women, with an additional 18 million people at risk of the disease. But osteoporosis is not inevitable, as there are things you can do now to reduce your risk later on. For example, if you live a sedentary lifestyle you may be inadvertently increasing your chances of osteoporosis. “Bone is a living tissue and responds to load,” says Jonathan Lee, MD, an attending physician of orthopedics at Montefiore Health System in the Bronx, New York. “For bone, the more you use it, the more it will adapt and strengthen. Likewise, if it is not subjected to loading, it will waste away.” Studies in astronauts proved this: The weightless environment in space actually caused them to lose bone mass. The solution for us here on earth? Weight-bearing exercise. “Make sure that the exercise you choose actually loads your skeleton—while swimming has many wonderful health benefits, your bones are not loaded,” Dr. Lee says. “An activity such as walking might be better for osteoporosis prevention.” Here are 16 easy ways to work a walk into your daily routine.
You love your steak
A Paleo diet or other protein-focused eating plans like Atkins could be bad for your bones—but even if aren’t trying to, you’re probably consuming too much meat. “Almost all Americans eat much more protein than they need,” Dr. Lee says. How this affects bones reflects the delicate balance of your body’s different systems. “High-protein diets can cause the kidneys to excrete more calcium,” he says. “Since calcium is one of the primary building blocks of bone, this calcium loss can contribute to decreased bone mineral density,” which can lead to osteoporosis. However, some studies have shown protein causes the body to absorb more calcium, which is why there is extra to get rid of. But as with most everything when it comes to your health, it’s still best to eat meat in moderation. Here's what happens to your body when you stop eating red meat.
You eat salty snacks
Another dietary factor that could be contributing to bone loss is too much salt. “High salt intake increases blood pressure,” Dr. Lee explains. “As the kidneys work to excrete the sodium, calcium is also removed from the bloodstream.” A study from Japan presented at a meeting of The Endocrine Society showed that postmenopausal women who had high sodium intakes were over four times more likely to have a non-vertebral (non-spinal) fracture than those with low sodium intakes. And although the Japanese consume more salt than those in the U.S.—3,972 mg versus 3,400 mg per day according to one of the study’s authors—Americans are still way over the recommended 2,300 mg daily. These are signs you’re eating too much sodium.
You avoid sunlight like a vampire
Although sunscreen is crucial to reduce skin cancer risk, vitamin D is still needed to help process calcium. “Vitamin D is required for the body to successfully absorb and use calcium, one of the fundamental building blocks of bone,” Dr. Lee says. “Most Americans, especially in colder climates, do not get enough sun exposure to generate enough natural vitamin D, and thus supplementation is essential.” According to the National Osteoporosis Foundation, adults under 50 need 400-800 IU of vitamin D daily, and adults over 50 need 800-1,000 IU daily. Talk to your doctor about your specific needs based on where you live, what time of year it is and what vitamin D-rich foods you eat. These are signs you’re not getting enough vitamin D.
You can’t function without java
Coffee seems to be good for you one month, then not good for you the next. Dr. Lee says that how caffeine affects bones really seems to be more of a potential issue for older women. “The researchers who studied the mechanism for why caffeine might contribute to bone loss seem to conclude that the effects really only occur in the absence of significant amounts of estrogen, so it might be more of a problem in post-menopausal women,” he says. “However, I would not get bent out of shape on this one as I don't think there is enough conclusive evidence to quit your morning cup of coffee, regardless of your age.” But, if you have other risk factors or you drink multiple cups a day, you might consider cutting down. Here are some signs you're drinking too much coffee.
You’re losing a lot of weight
While getting to a healthy weight is good, losing too much weight can be very bad for your bones. “As with exercise, the bones need to be adequately loaded in order to stimulate them enough to respond to the load and generate more biomechanically ‘good’ bone,” Dr. Lee says. “Body mass index less than 19 is considered a risk factor for osteoporosis.” According to a study from the Harvard School of Public Health, just a one unit increase in BMI (approximately five to eight pounds) decreased the risk of bone loss a whopping 12 percent, a “greater magnitude than most other modifiable risk factors,“ according to the study’s authors. Dr. Lee also points out that “those who are underweight might also be suffering from malnutrition, which could contribute to osteoporosis as well.” Here are some things you can do every day to boost your bone health.
You unwind with wine
Low levels of alcohol consumption may actually be good for your bones, according to a study from the University of Oregon, but more than a couple of drinks a day has the opposite effect. “Too much alcohol can make it harder for the GI tract to absorb calcium,” Dr. Lee says. “It also affects the pancreas and liver, influencing both calcium and vitamin D.” Alcohol can also affect different hormones in the body. “Cortisol levels can increase, and this can lead to lower bone mineral density,” Dr. Lee says. “In women in particular, higher alcohol consumption can decrease estrogen levels, and this can also lead to osteoporosis. To top it all off, alcohol is directly toxic to osteoblasts, the cells that become bone cells.” Here are some other medical conditions that are vastly different for men and women.
You have a weakness for soda
Some research has shown that sodas (specifically colas) have been linked with bone loss, but the reasons why aren’t clear. The Cleveland Clinic says it could be the caffeine or the levels of phosphoric acid, which can leach calcium from bones. But Dr. Lee thinks there isn’t much evidence to prove the phosphoric acid theory. “Most experts now feel that it's more likely that soda is replacing healthy calcium intake, rather than causing the problem,” he says. “For example, if someone drank a glass of milk instead of a glass of soda over a period of time, they probably would have a lower risk for osteoporosis.” If you do drink soda, make sure you’re getting enough calcium from other sources. Here’s how your body benefits from quitting diet soda.