Unintentional weight loss
Gabrielle Revere for Reader's Digest
If you've lost more than ten pounds with no diet or exercise changes, get it checked out, says Richard Wender, MD, chief cancer control officer at the American Cancer Society. This happens most often with pancreatic, stomach, esophageal, or lung cancer. Here are more reasons unexpected weight loss could be a serious problem.
Damage to your teeth
“I often get referrals from dentists with patients who don’t feel heartburn or other reflux symptoms, but their teeth enamel is completely worn down,” says Evan Dellon, MD, a gastrointestinal (GI) specialist at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine. Many are shocked to learn they have acid reflux. While sugary drinks wear down teeth at the front of your mouth, acid from your esophagus tends to dissolve enamel of the teeth at the back. Other subtle but suspicious symptoms of reflux include a persistent sore throat, coughing, unexplained wheezing, or a frequent foul taste in your mouth. If you or your dentist notices any of these warning signs, see a GI specialist promptly. Untreated reflux not only leads to tooth decay but can also increase your risk for esophageal cancer. Beware of these everyday mistakes that ruin your teeth.
Itchy, blistery skin rash
Gabrielle Revere for Reader's Digest
This reaction, which breaks out on the elbows, knees, butt, back, or scalp, may look suspiciously like eczema, but it could be a more serious issue: celiac disease, an autoimmune condition in which ingesting even the tiniest amount of gluten causes your body to attack its own intestines. Up to 25 percent of people with celiac have this rash, known as dermatitis herpetiformis. Many patients have no digestive symptoms. When someone with celiac consumes gluten, the body releases an antibody known as IgA, which attacks the intestines; sometimes IgA also collects in small blood vessels underneath the skin, triggering the telltale rash. Unlike people with other forms of celiac, patients with dermatitis herpetiformis don’t have to undergo an endoscopic biopsy for a definitive diagnosis. A doctor can biopsy the rash and look for antibodies that indicate celiac. Once you start a gluten-free diet, the rash should disappear, and you’ll protect your body from other long-term, serious damage of celiac disease, such as osteoporosis or small intestine cancer. Your skin can reveal these surprising signs of disease, too.
Bowel or bladder changes
Peeing more or less than usual could indicate bladder or prostate cancer. Constipation or diarrhea may signal colon or ovarian cancer. You may attribute gassiness or bloating to your diet, but talk to your doctor if it lasts more than a week. Here are more sneaky colon cancer symptoms you shouldn't ignore.
About one third of patients with Crohn’s disease—an inflammatory disorder of the GI tract—have a form that affects just the anal region. It manifests as sores, ulcerations, or fleshy growths outside the area, which can be mistaken for hemorrhoids. “Patients will say sitting is so unpleasant, it’s like they’re perched on top of a marble,” says David Rubin, MD, chief of gastroenterology at the University of Chicago Medical Center. This type of Crohn’s disease is often the most painful and has the worst prognosis, says Dr. Rubin. (If left untreated, Crohn’s can lead to bowel obstruction, painful fissures, and even colon cancer.) If you have what appear to be hemorrhoids that don’t respond to treatment, Dr. Rubin recommends seeing a GI specialist for a second opinion as soon as possible. He or she can run blood tests to check for white blood cell count, C-reactive protein, and other markers that can indicate undiagnosed disease.
Changes in handwriting
When you think of Parkinson’s, you probably think of tremors, but a more telling early Parkinson's warning sign is handwriting that gets much smaller. Handwriting analysis identified patients in early stages more than 97 percent of the time, a 2013 Israeli study found. "I have patients write a sentence such as 'Today is a nice day ten times,'" says Michael S. Okun, MD, national medical director for the Parkinson's Foundation. “As they write, each sentence gets smaller and smaller, and the words become more crowded together.” Parkinson’s disease occurs when nerve cells in the brain become damaged or die off. They stop producing as much dopamine, a chemical that sends signals to produce movement; this causes muscle stiffness in hands and fingers, which affects handwriting. Two other early red flags of Parkinson’s: loss of smell—so you don’t notice mouthwatering odors—and really intense dreams in which you thrash, kick, and punch during sleep. If you notice any of these symptoms—and they last more than a couple of weeks—see a neurologist. The earlier Parkinson’s is diagnosed, and the sooner you get control of symptoms, the better your quality of life will be. Watch out for more early symptoms of Parkinson's disease.
Random bursts of anger
For many people, depression doesn’t translate to weeping or lying listlessly on the couch. More than half of patients with depression have irritability and anger; in fact, those depression symptoms are associated with a more severe, longer-lasting form, according to a 2013 University of California, San Diego, study. “A classic case: Someone never suffered from road rage before, but now if they get cut off, they get so furious, they go crazy blaring their horn,” says Philip Muskin, MD, a professor of psychiatry at Columbia University Medical Center. Women are found to have depression more often than men, but men are more likely to experience the disease through irritability and anger, according to a 2013 University of Michigan study. If you’re constantly snapping at your spouse or the slightest annoyance gets your heart racing—and these reactions have lasted for more than two weeks—there’s a real chance that depression is the culprit. Many cases of major depression respond well to a combination of antidepressants and cognitive behavior therapy, a short-term therapy that teaches skills to avoid damaging thoughts or actions. A British study published this past April found that mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, which helps increase awareness of negative spirals, was as effective as meds in preventing a recurrence of depression over a two-year period.
Coughs don't usually mean cancer, but if you develop a cough that won't disappear, even though you've never had allergies, asthma, or sinus problems, take note. It could be lung cancer, or, if accompanied by hoarseness, cancer of the larynx or throat. These are other signs your lungs could be in trouble.
Difficulty managing finances
When University of Alabama researchers followed 87 seniors with mild memory problems, the 25 who went on to develop Alzheimer’s showed declines over a yearlong period in skills like managing bank statements and paying bills. “One question we often ask: ‘You’re out to lunch, and the bill is $60. What’s a 15 percent tip?'” says Daniel Marson, PhD, director of the Alzheimer’s Disease Center at the University of Alabama in Birmingham. “People in the early stages of Alzheimer’s might struggle for a minute or two and then say, ‘It’s $7.’ ” (The answer is $9.) While everyone has an occasional senior moment, “it’s a red flag if these issues persist on a regular basis,” says Marson. As Alzheimer’s develops, the brain’s cortex, which includes areas involved in thinking, planning, and remembering, shrivels up. This makes managing day-to-day finances increasingly difficult. Here are more signs your brain is aging faster than you are.
Gabrielle Revere for Reader's Digest
It’s a commonly known symptom of sleep apnea, which is associated with increased heart disease risk. But snoring may play a bigger role in cardiovascular disease than experts thought. A 2013 study found that even among patients without sleep apnea, snoring was linked with thickening of carotid arteries in the neck; such damage is a precursor to stroke and heart attack. Snoring was more strongly associated with this wall damage than were smoking, high cholesterol, or being overweight. Why? Snoring may damage the carotid arteries, which supply blood to the brain. “We think the arteries are reacting to the vibration of the snoring, since they’re very close to the throat,” says study author Kathleen Yaremchuk, MD, chair of the Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery at Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit. These are other surprising symptoms of sleep apnea.