namtipStudio/ShutterstockAsk someone who is diagnosed with insomnia and through their dark circles and sleepy eyes, they'll tell you what a pain this disorder is. (Struggling to sleep? Try these natural sleep aids.) According to sleep expert and dentist, Sabrina Magid Katz, DMD, insomniacs not only have trouble falling and staying asleep, but they wake up long before the alarm clock goes off and can't fall back asleep. Episodes of sleeplessness can last days and even weeks. To try and make it less likely that you'll have a stare down with the sandman, Dr. Magid suggests, "winding down plenty of time before bed. That may mean dimming the lights, avoiding snacking and drinking, and unplugging from technology. Beware of hidden sources of caffeine, especially before bed. Meditative techniques may help as well." But if none of those do the trick? Chat with a doctor to help find an alternative solution.
tommaso79/ShutterstockYou've probably heard about the more severe type of snoring, sleep apnea. Characterized by thunderous snorts and stoppages of breathing that can last more than a minute, this serious condition needs professional medical attention right away. But there's still garden-variety noisy log-sawing. It might not seem like a big deal that you sound like a grizzly bear when your head hits the pillow, but your partner will beg to differ. Try out some simple solutions to stop snoring, but if those don't work talk to a doctor. Snoring can lead to bigger issues down the line and can be disruptive to your sleep. As Steven Davis, MD, the medical director of The Breathe Clear Institute says, snoring is treatable—but you have to know if you're guilty first. If you're single or prefer to sleep alone, there are several apps that will give you a clue. From there? He recommends Breathe Right strips, oral snore guards, nasal sprays, or in extreme cases, a minor surgery can solve the issue ASAP.
Upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS)
Africa Studio/ShutterstockNow you're talking about the next level of snoring, according to Dr. Davis. "This is when snoring is accompanied by very brief pauses in breathing. While daytime sleepiness is a symptom of both UARS and sleep apnea, there are no associated health risks in people who have UARS," he notes. Just like snoring, you can treat this condition with breathing products or an outpatient surgery.
Periodic limb movement
SunyawitPhoto/ShutterstockIf you often feel like there is something crawling over your legs right before you fall asleep, you're probably not losing it, but you could be struggling with periodic limb movement—one of several subtle reasons you can't sleep. Dr. Magid explains this disorder can be common, especially with age, and can be helped with medication that helps your legs to "rest." When they're under control and those "creepy crawly" feeling are gone, you will sleep deeper and wake up ready to head out to your jam-packed day.
Africa Studio/ShutterstockEver wake up with a stiff neck and tight jaw and wonder if you slept funky? According to Dr. Magid, you could have spent the night having it out with your pillow—or you could be grinding your teeth. Many adults (and children) rub those pearly whites together at night, and it's worth talking to your dentist for a solution. While teeth grinding, or "bruxism," can be solved with a night guard that'll protect your mouth, a grinding habit can also indicate a bigger issue like sleep apnea.
For ideas on how to stop grinding your teeth, read this.
Sleepwalking and night terrors
Andrey Popov/ShutterstockIf you grew up with a sibling that screamed in his sleep or wandered the halls, you've encountered night terrors or sleepwalking, and you know how startling these movements can be. (Read a moving story about night terrors—and dozens of other topics.) Dr. Magid explains that these type of conditions are called "parasomnias"—an event that creates arousal or abnormal movements during sleep. If you or a loved one are sufferer, make sure to seek a medical opinion. You don't want to put yourself or others in danger.
Batkova Elena/ShutterstockWhile rare, this neurological condition impacts an estimated 200,000 people in the United States, according to Raghu Idupuganti, MD, an anesthesiologist at NYC Surgical Associates. Though this chronic disease is often poked fun of in sitcoms and movies, the reality of those who suffer can be grim. They can fall asleep at any given moment, even mid-sentence, Dr. Idupuganti says. And it's not just sleepiness that happens either: "The disease is sometimes associated with complete loss of muscle tone, known as cataplexy," he notes. What causes it? Dr. Idupuganti says most of narcolepsy is still a mystery, but experts do claim a deficiency of the brain hormone called hypocretin can lead to this disease. Sadly, as of now, there is no cure but there are some medications that can alleviate symptoms.
-Dean-Drobot/ShutterstockThis is what it sounds like: You're exhausted all day, and you'd like to sleep more—a lot more. "Some of the more common causes of this are narcolepsy, sleep deprivation, obstructive sleep apnea, alcohol use, drugs such as sleeping pills or excessive caffeine use," Dr. Idupuganti says. Not to worry if you're clocking more than the recommended eight hours, though, as being diagnosed with this condition requires a complete physical and exam. Dr. Idupuganti notes that in sub-Saharan African cultures, the tsetse fly carries a parasite that can induce "African sleeping sickness," a form of hypersomnia.
Excessive daytime sleepiness
wavebreakmedia/ShutterstockYou might need a nap mid-day after a late night—and napping has its benefits. But if you're constantly sleepy all the time, especially during the day, you might be struggling with excessive daytime sleepiness. "Most commonly it occurs because of sleep deprivation but it can also reflect a number of underlying medical diseases such as depression, hypothyroidism or anemia," Dr. Idupuganti says. Usually, treating the underlying cause resolves the condition; however, if EDS persists, medications—like Modafinil—can help a sufferer stay awake, Dr. Idupuganti explains.
REM behavior disorder
Warunya Ngamcharoen/ShutterstockRapid eye movement—REM—is a natural part of sleep. It indicates the brain is active and is usually accompanied by paralysis of the muscles to prevent you from acting out on dreams, according to Dr. Idupuganti. (You can learn more about the four stages of sleep here.) With REM behavior disorder (RBD), the muscles stay active, causing the person to thrash around during this dream state of sleep, he explains. People with this disorder might run, kick, scream, or act out in another way during dreams; in some cases they can cause injury to themselves or sleep partner. The condition can kick in when someone is experiencing withdrawal symptoms from, say, alcohol, sedatives, hypnotics, or even certain antidepressants, Dr. Idupuganti says. For some sufferers, RBD disease may be a harbinger of a neurological condition, so it's worth getting checked out right away, he explains. "There has been an association with several neurological conditions such as Parkinson's, Lewy body dementia and multisystem atrophy. For a definitive diagnosis a polysomnogram is essential and treatment is usually effective with oral medications," he recommends.