For years, cardiologists have pointed to high blood pressure, cigarette smoking, family history, and high cholesterol as the key clues that someone may be developing heart disease—the leading cause of death in the United States. Now, however, research led by doctors at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center found that a combination of five simple, newer tests is more effective in predicting cardiovascular disease than looking at the lifestyle factors alone. After studying a group of healthy individuals for more than ten years, the researchers found that those who scored poorly on all five tests were 20 times more likely to develop heart disease than those with good results. Here’s what you need to know about these breakthrough tests.
A standard 12-lead electrocardiogram, also known as an EKG, is one of the standard tests used to measure the electrical activity of the heart muscle. It’s non-invasive, painless, and quick—it usually only takes five to ten minutes—and it’s considered one of the best ways to assess heart disease risk. During an EKG, your doctor will place ten small electrodes on your limbs and chest that measure your heart’s electrical activity and will detect any abnormal rhythms and patterns that are commonly associated with heart attacks, arrhythmia, and other dangerous cardiovascular conditions. Andrew M. Freeman, MD, director of cardiovascular prevention and wellness at National Jewish Health and co-chair of the American College of Cardiology’s nutrition and lifestyle workgroup, says an EKG is typically used as a baseline test for new patients or for anyone showing symptoms of heart disease. While the average person doesn’t need to undergo the procedure very often, those who smoke, have high cholesterol, or have a family history of heart disease should consult with their doctor to see how often they should get tested. Here are five other heart disease risk factors you might not know.
Coronary calcium scan
If your doctor suspects you may be at risk for developing heart disease, she might carry out a coronary calcium scan. This low-radiation CT scan reveals the amount of calcium built up in your coronary arteries. “When we see calcium in the coronaries, it means that there’s some degree of atherosclerosis—sludge in the pipes that supply the coronaries,” Dr. Freeman says. In general, lower levels of calcium in the arteries are linked with better heart health, he says, while high levels may indicate an increased risk of heart attack or other cardiovascular events. People with high cholesterol, high blood pressure, a family history of early heart disease, or other traditional heart disease risks may need to undergo the scan more frequently. Dr. Freeman also warns that men, especially those over the age of 70, are more likely to experience coronary calcium buildup.