Plain old aging
Kinga/Shutterstock First things first: There’s a big difference between the brain changes of normal aging and the cognitive disruptions of diseases like Alzheimer’s and other forms of dementia. “In a normal, healthy brain, the major thing that happens as we get older is our neurons slow down a bit,” says Michael R. Wasserman, MD, board member of the American Geriatrics Society’s Health in Aging Foundation. Such slowing could mean taking a bit longer to process or react to new information. But Dr. Wasserman is quick to add two crucial points. One: Everyone is different. “I’ve met plenty of 100 year olds who are sharp as a tack.” And two: Cognitive problems that make it harder to get through your day, such as the following signs and symptoms, shouldn’t be accepted as part of aging; they should be taken as a signal to see your doctor. Watch out for these habits that are making you age faster.
Short-term memory loss
Katya-Shut/Shutterstock When it comes to disorders of the older brain, Alzheimer’s disease is a biggie, and it has a pretty clear early warning sign. “The area of the brain Alzheimer’s affects most is short-term memory,” says Dr. Wasserman. “So the major early symptom of the disease is short-term memory loss—that’s what everyone notices.” This could include everything from forgetting the day’s events to an inability to recall instructions. Repeating questions or forgetting recent conversations are also among the indicators, says David M. Holtzman, MD, Professor and Chairman, Department of Neurology, Washington University in St. Louis. “This can be caused by dysfunction in the medial temporal lobe, frequently among the first signs of Alzheimer’s disease as well as some other brain disorders,” he explains.
Long-term memory loss
Ruslan Guzov/Shutterstock If your memory problems extend to things that happened years or decades in the past, it’s possible you might be dealing with a different type of dementia, says Dr. Wasserman. “For people with Alzheimer’s, long-term memory tends to hold out, but with other forms of dementia you may have more long-term memory issues.” Multi-infarct dementia—caused by multiple strokes, which interrupt blood supply resulting in damaged brain tissue—is probably the best example because the strokes may hit part of brain responsible for long-term memory, he explains. These anti-aging secrets can add years to your life.