17 Surprising Cinco de Mayo Facts You Never Knew
Cinco de Mayo celebrates Mexican culture and heritage. But here's what you might not know about Cinco de Mayo.
Cinco de Mayo basics
Cinco de Mayo means, yep, the fifth of May. As you may have surmised, we celebrate it on May 5. This holiday is so beloved in the United States (the celebrations are bigger here than it is in Mexico), that the celebrations are still going to happen, despite the pandemic. However, due to most restaurants and bars being closed, and public gatherings banned, the celebrations will look different than what you’re used to. This is the true story of the history of Cinco de Mayo.
What Cinco de Mayo commemorates
Officially, Cinco de Mayo commemorates Mexico’s May 5, 1862, victory over the French at the Battle of Puebla during the Franco-Mexican War (1861-1867). The war began when the French invaded Mexico—at Veracruz—in 1861. France’s intention was to establish dominance in Mexico while the United States was preoccupied with the Civil War and then to provide military support to the Confederate cause.
What Cinco de Mayo is not
Cinco de Mayo isn’t a national holiday in Mexico, although it is celebrated in certain Mexican municipalities, most notably Puebla and Veracruz. Nor is Cinco de Mayo the equivalent of Mexican Independence Day. In fact, despite the Mexican victory at Puebla on May 5, 1862, the French continued to occupy Mexico for five more years. Here are some more history lessons your teacher lied to you about.
But it was a national holiday in Mexico in 1862
There still was a period of time when Cinco de Mayo was a national holiday in Mexico, too. President Benito Juárez declared the anniversary of the Battle of Puebla a national holiday on May 9, 1862. Rather than calling it “Cinco de Mayo”, the holiday was called “Battle of Puebla Day” or “Battle of Cinco de Mayo.”
The first Cinco de Mayo celebration
Historians believe that the first Cinco de Mayo celebrations were held by Mexican-Americans living in California during the American Civil War. It was not so much “celebrations” as political rallies held for the purpose of generating support for Mexico during the Franco-Mexican War, according to this report by Time on how to celebrate Cinco de Mayo in a historically accurate way.
The 1930s-1960s: Cinco de Mayo and the Good Neighbor Policy
Although Cinco de Mayo was observed throughout the remainder of the 19th and the first third of the 20th century, it really took off after President Franklin Delano Roosevelt enacted the “Good Neighbor Policy” in 1933, which was geared toward improving relations with Latin American countries. “Cinco de Mayo’s purpose was to function as a bridge” between the United States and Mexican cultures, according to José Alamillo, professor of ethnic studies at Washington State University (as reported by National Geographic). Its popularity grew in the 1960s when Mexican-Americans embraced it as a means of building their cultural pride.
The 1980s: The Corona connection
In the 1980s, beer companies, particularly Corona, recognized there were profits to be made on Cinco de Mayo through selling beer to the rising Latino population in the United States. “Through a series of well-received advertisements, Corona helped transform Cinco de Mayo into an all-day happy hour celebration, encouraging the growing Mexican and Mexican-American population to celebrate their heritage on May 5 by purchasing Mexican beer,” according to Latina.
Congress declares Cinco de Mayo a national holiday
Cinco de Mayo became an official U.S. holiday in 2005 when the U.S. Congress declared it as such and called upon the president of the United States to issue a proclamation that Americans could observe the day by celebrating Mexican-American heritage with “appropriate ceremonies and activities.” It is now customary for the president to host a Cinco de Mayo reception at the White House, complete with folklórico dancers, according to Latina. Find out the history behind another holiday that falls during the fifth month: What is May Day?
Both President George W. Bush and President Barack Obama used Cinco de Mayo to connect with the Hispanic community by holding celebrations and receptions (inviting Cabinet members, Latino celebrities, and Mexican Embassy officials to the White House), and to promote immigration reform. In 2016, Obama had 500 guests, food catered by San Antonio celebrity chef Johnny Hernandez, and music by Mexican pop band Maná. Vice President Mike Pence hosted the 2017 White House Cinco de Mayo celebration.
Cinco de Mayo’s historical relevance to the United States
Although Cinco de Mayo is largely a celebration of Mexican culture in the United States, it is quite historically significant. Had it not been for the victory of the Mexican army at Puebla, France would have been able to turn its attention to aiding the Confederate Army during the Civil War. In addition, Cinco de Mayo is the last time that any foreign power has acted as the aggressor on North American soil (the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor course took place in the middle of the Pacific, of course). Learn the reason we also remember American military veterans in May—the history of Memorial Day.
Cinco De Mayo in the era of coronavirus
Bars and restaurants are closed, and public gatherings are banned—which means that to celebrate Cinco de Mayo, people are getting creative. Yes, in-person celebrations are not likely, but a lot of fun virtual options are happening instead. Eva Longoria recently announced she will be hosting a virtual Cinco de Mayo benefit concert that will raise money for the Farmworker’s COVID-19 Pandemic Relief Fund. Gloria and Emilio Estefan, Luis Fonsi, J Balvin, Diane Guerrero, and Ana Brenda Contreras will be teaming up with Longoria for the concert. The Historic Old Town Community Foundation in San Diego, California, is also holding a virtual Cinco de Mayo celebration.
Appropriate versus appropriation
The experts respectfully suggest that there are proper and respectful ways to enjoy Cinco de Mayo, and these do not include wearing sombreros and fake mustaches, or claiming the day is called “Cinco de Drinko.” Rather, to celebrate Mexico’s impressive culture and heritage, they suggest eating authentic Mexican fare, responsibly drinking a margarita or two, and most definitely listening to some of the wonderful music that comes from Mexico. And, of course, the best way to truly learn about Mexican culture is to actually visit Mexico; consider one of its most gorgeous and popular destinations.
Cinco de Mayo is muy bueno for commerce
Of course, Cinco de Mayo wouldn’t be complete without guacamole. In fact, Americans consume up to 81 million pounds of avocados on Cinco de Mayo every year, according to the California Avocado Commission. Americans spend upwards of $2.9 billion on margaritas annually (that’s 14 percent of American cocktail spending), and the United States is the biggest tequila market in the world. As for cervezas (Spanish for “beer”), Americans consumed almost a billion liters of Corona Extra in 2014.
Latinx communities don’t always have a favorable outlook about the holiday
Due to certain racial insensitivities surrounding the holiday, Latinx communities don’t always have a positive outlook regarding Cinco de Mayo. In fact, there are many who specifically avoid observing the holiday due to a generational forgetfulness about the holiday’s Civil War origins, according to the New York Times.
Mariachi music also has a long history
Mariachi, which is the music mostly associated with Cinco de Mayo celebrations, also has a long history just like the holiday. It originated in Jalisco, Mexico, in the 19th century, according to Mariachi-Plaza.com. Back then, musicians would travel from town to town singing songs of revolutionary heroes and enemies, and carrying news from one place to another. Around the 1930s, Mariachi enjoyed a newfound fame thanks to Silvestre Vargas and Rubén Fuentes.
Puppies can be part of celebrations
Did you know that Chihuahuas have a special part in Cinco de Mayo celebrations? Many cities around the country, including Denver, Colorado, and Chandler, Arizona, hold an annual Chihuahua Race in honor of Cinco de Mayo. The race in Denver is so popular that around 400,000 people are estimated to attend it every year.